The Munsell color system is one system that specifies colors based upon three color dimensions, hue, value, and chroma (difference from gray at the given hue and lightness).
Professor Albert H. Munsell, an artist, wanted to produce a “rational approach to describe color” depending on the principle of “perceived equidistance”, and this would use decimal notation rather than color names (that he felt were “foolish” and “misleading”). He first started work on the program in 1898 and published it in full form in Color Notation in 1905. The munsell color chart has become used today.
Munsell constructed his system around a circle with ten segments, arranging its colors at equal distances and selecting them in such a way that opposing pairs would cause an achromatic mixture.
The device contains an irregular cylinder together with the value axis (light/dark) running down and up through it, along with the axis of your earth.
Dark colors are at the end in the tree and light towards the top, measured from 1 (dark) to 10 (light).
Each horizontal “slice” of the cylinder over the axis is really a hue circle, which he separated into five principal hues: red, yellow, green, blue, and purple, five intermediates, yellow-red, green-yellow, blue-green, purple-blue, and red-purple.
Munsell hue is specified by selecting one of these ten hues, and then discussing the angle inside them from 1 to 10.
“Chroma” was measured out of the center in the wheel, with lower chroma being less saturated (washed out, such as pastels). Note that there is no intrinsic upper limit to chroma. Different parts of the colour space have different maximal chroma coordinates. As an example light yellow colors have significantly more potential chroma than light purples, due to nature in the eye and the physics of color stimuli. This triggered a wide array of possible chroma levels, as well as a chroma of 10 might or might not be maximal depending on the hue and value.
A color is fully specified by 85dexupky the 3 numbers. For instance a rather saturated blue of medium lightness can be 5B 5/10 with 5B meaning colour in the middle of the blue hue band, 5/ meaning medium lightness, along with a chroma of 10.
The original embodiment from the system (the 1905 Atlas) had some deficiencies as a physical representation from the theoretical system. They were improved significantly inside the 1929 Munsell Book of Color and thru a comprehensive group of experiments carried out by the Optical Society of America within the 1940’s causing the notations (sample definitions) for your modern Munsell Book of Color. The system continues to be commonly used in many different applications and represents among the best available data sets on the perceptual scaling of lightness, chroma and hue.
Advantages: A fairly simple system for comparing colors of objects by assigning them a set of numbers based upon standard samples. Popular in practical applications like painting and textiles.
Disadvantages: Complementary colors are not on opposite sides, to ensure one cannot predict the outcomes of color mixing well.